Look at This: A Guide to Interactive Information Visualizations

Information visualization, the practice of representing a set of data visually, has been an infatuation of UX design for some time now. The method is meant to make data easy to understand and to communicate. But how often have we seen impressive graphical representations of data where we hadn’t the slightest idea of what the creator was trying to explain? So many visualizations fail to incorporate basic UX principles.

Add the element of interactivity and the data may become even more muddled. In static visualizations, an entire set of data needs to be understood at a glance. But interactive displays enable readers to freely explore an entire data set, or to focus on a specific subset of that data. The increased complexity and level of specificity could easily cause more confusion than comprehension.

Small Arms and Ammunition - Imports and Exports. A sphere that shows government-authorized small arms and ammunitions imports and exports from 1992 to 2010 in dollar amounts.
Google’s Small Arms Imports & Exports visualization displays a spherical image that invites readers to explore by rotating it. As the visualization loads for the first time, a short animation reinforces this intuition. Users can filter by country. This view enables users to compare the volume of exchanges of the selected country with that of its business partners.
View on Google
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Washington: A World Apart. Map of the Unites States that highlights the nation’s Super Zips, the zip codes that have the highest rankings in income and college education. The largest collection of Super Zips is around Washington, D.C.
The macro view of Washington: A world apart, illustrates relative income and education levels by zip code in the US. A color scheme distinguishing degrees of education and income enables users to perceive the geographic distribution at a glance.
View at the Washington Post
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Flavor Connection. Foods are represented by dots. The size of the dot represents how popular the food is. Lines connect the dots that have at least one flavor-related chemical compound in common.
Needs Work.
Scientific American’s Flavor Connection represents flavor commonalities in various foods. The abundance of graphic elements makes for difficult interpretation and tricky interaction. Also, this macro view doesn’t lead to any specific conclusion and few trends are apparent. A view emphasizing the relationships between entities would be more appropriate.
View on Scientific American
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US Gun Deaths in 2013. Lines from birth to death show how many people were killed in 2013 and in 2010, and how many years they theoretically could have lived if their lives hadn’t been cut short by gun violence.
The U.S. Gun Deaths site provides an excellent primer, using an animation to show the user how to interpret what they see. The yellow section of the graphic indicates the how long victims of gun crime live, while the gray section indicates how many years were stolen from the victims’ lives.
View on Periscopic
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Channels play different roles in the customer journey. Timeline populated with icons representing industries, business size and region.
Needs Work.
Google’s Customer Journey to Online Purchase represents different channels of communication as a function of their importance in the purchase decision. But because it provides no indication of how to interact with it, the behavior appears unpredictable.
View on Think with Google
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PeopleMovin. Lines reveal migration flow to and from a seleted country.
Peoplemovin illustrates the flow of immigration through various countries. As the visualization loads, an animated instruction shows the reader how to interact. Information is communicated simply and the indicator of how to interact with it is unobtrusive and easy to spot.
View on PeopleMovin
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100 Years of Rock. A timeline shows the effect music genres have on each other via lines that link them.
Concerthotels.com’s 100 Years of Rock reveals its content progressively, so that the logic of the visualization – a timeline – gradually becomes clear. The animation ends on an instructive note, explaining what the user needs to do to continue to explore the data (i.e., click on a musical genre.)
View on ConcertHotel
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Flight Misery Map. A map of the United States shows flight delays and cancellations via donut graphs that represent the country’s major affected airports.
Needs Work.
FlightAware’s Misery Map shows the proportion of delayed or cancelled flights at several U.S. airports. The abundance of graphic information, the fact that it changes continually and the absence of cues as to how to interact with it leaves viewers at a loss.
View on FlightAware
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How far can I go? A map lists where a user can travel via airplane based on the dollar amount chosen
Air New Zealand’s “How far can I go?” presents a simple and specific message. It’s great power is in showing nothing more than what vacationers really want to know: where can I go given my budget?
View on Air New Zealand
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HealthyMagination. Dots represent various health issues. Related issues are connected via lines.
Needs Work.
This health InfoScape visualization from GE illustrates the relationship between various health issues and medical practices. Because its message lacks specificity, no clear conclusion surfaces.
View at MIT
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Music Timeline. A timeline shows what music genres are popular during chosen decades, along with examples of the music .
Google’s Music Timeline illustrates music trends since the 1950s. It emphasizes the popularity of each trend at different points in history. The visualization uses animations for transitions, which enable readers to understand the relationship between one view and another.
View on Google
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2012 Pakistan - The Refugee Project. A map with the countries refugees originate from and the top countries they travel to. Data available for each year from 1975 to 2012
In selecting a country on The Refugee Project, an animation shows where refugees have come from and where they arrived. This enhances the quality of the narration. The micro view reveals detailed information about the selected country.
View at the Refugee Project.
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Financial Transactions. An image shows export and import data for the chosen countries, in this case United States, China, Japan, Germany, France
This GED VIZ visualization illustrates fiscal transactions between countries. As the reader hovers, it becomes clear that the user is about to reveal more details about the exchange.
View on GEDVIZ
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There are six basic principles to help you create effective information visualizations and interactive experiences. The accompanying slideshow offers example visualizations, along with explanations for what makes them succeed or fail.

1. Know your Role

With a visualization, you are telling a story. And like any good story, a good information visualization conveys information progressively. Your story should have three elements: a primer, a plotline/storyline, and a conclusion.

In an interactive visualization, the primer may take several forms, including:

  • Animation to introduce the visualization
  • Instructional text to explain the visualization
  • Instructions that are revealed gradually as the user interacts with the visualization

In the primer, it’s important to reveal the purpose of the visualization and how the interactions work. The big “What should I understand here?” or “Why should I care about this?” is often expressed in the title. Clues about how the visualization functions are generally given in textual or symbolic form as an invitation to interact.

The storyline is where the user reads and interacts with the visualization. It steers the user to a conclusion. Then the conclusion is the takeaway—what the user retains after interacting with the visualization.

2. Define the Message

Before you start to structure information in a visualization, it’s crucial to identify what you’re trying to communicate. All the stylistic and structural decisions you’ll make should support the transmission of this message. Steer clear of vague or sweeping goals such as, “We’ve got a set of data that we want to represent.” An information visualization isn’t an exercise in data synthesis; it’s an exercise in making data understandable to a wide audience. Far beyond representing data, a well-designed information visualization makes data compelling, guides users in interpreting it, and engages them to draw a conclusion. An absence of guidance places the burden of interpretation entirely on users, alienating all but the most rigorous and motivated, and therefore diminishing the project’s impact.

Two qualities mark a well-crafted message:

  • Simplicity: A message that’s easy to understand will have more impact than a message that isn’t.
  • Specificity: A precise, narrowly defined message enables the user to draw a meaningful and relevant conclusion. A vague or ambiguous message may lead to a vague or ambiguous interpretation.

3. Structure your Visualization

A visualization may have up to three levels of specificity, or three views onto a given representation of data: the macro, meso, and micro views. Each affords a different interpretation of the information. When developing a strategy for your message, be sure to define the appropriate level(s) of specificity and set the order in which you’ll expose readers to these views, so as to support them reaching a conclusion.

  • Macro (or systemic) view. The macro view presents the entire set of data. It’s typically used to communicate patterns or trends in the dataset rather than to surface specific data. These patterns or trends are central to a visualization’s message.
  • Meso (or local) view. The meso view of a visualization presents data in a way that’s detailed enough to let users distinguish individual data points, compare them with one with another, and spot similarities and differences. Make use of this view to provide context for the data that’s displayed. At this level, avoid bombarding users with more details than they can reasonably absorb. Instead, enable users to isolate and examine a subset of the data by allowing them to zoom in on a section of a visualization, for example, or by positioning elements in 3D space.
  • Micro view. The micro view reveals detailed information or explanations of individual segments of the data. These details typically appear when an individual segment of the data visualization is selected.

4. Format your Visualization  

Although the structure of your visualization is crucial, structure alone won’t guarantee effectiveness. Stylistic choices can make or break the quality of an information visualization experience. Here are some aspects to consider.

Emphasize important elements

When making stylistic decisions, aim to guide users in reading the visualization. In doing so, the following strategies suggested by gestalt principles are helpful.

Both views show the same four words, but one appears to read “Stop War. Peace Now.” while the other looks like “Stop Peace. War Now.”

Figure 1. Placing elements beside one another reinforces the perception that they are related. At left, proximity has the desired result. At right is an unintended pitfall of proximity: close elements are perceived as part of the same group when they really aren’t.

Group by proximity. Elements that are close to one another are perceived to belong to the same group (Figure 1). In creating your visualization, ensure that unrelated elements aren’t inadvertently grouped together. On the flip side, placing related elements beside one another in space will reinforce the perception that they are related.

Alternating columns of red and black squares

Figure 2. The dots in two different colors are perceived as belonging to two different groups, irrespective of their positions.

Group by similarity. By the same token, elements with similar visual characteristics for example, color, shape, or size, are perceived to belong to the same group (Figure 2). Again, it’s important to be sure that no visual groups are inadvertently created in your visualization. Use this strategy to highlight similarities between elements. You might decide to use the color red to identify all problematic elements. Or you might accentuate the differences between two groups by creating contrast in their shape or size. Use grouping by similarity wisely, preferably to distinguish two or three groups at most. Above this limit, too many visual characteristics compete for attention and make it difficult to decipher the main focal points.

If too many groups are portrayed in a visualization, it becomes important to prioritize the information according to the message you’re trying to convey. Generally, you’ll want to emphasize one category of information at a time. Use animations or a navigation scheme to enable users to transition from one category of data to another. And help the reader focus by highlighting information at the right time.

5. Then Add Interactivity

Interactive visualizations have an advantage over static visualizations in that they convey a message in multiple steps. This creates a narrative that encourages readers to move from one step to the next. After all, engaged readers retain a message more effectively than passive ones. Only after the foundation and direction of the visualization are set do you decide the interactive elements.

Clicks, taps, and other gestures

Clicks or taps are the most prominent interaction paradigms for information visualizations. If other gestures (scroll, pan, etc.) trigger behavior, it’s important to make them obvious to the reader. Choose your gestures wisely; not all visualizations lend themselves naturally to all gestures. Rotating a spherical visualization, for instance, would be more intuitive than rotating a linear one.

Guidance and anticipation

Enable the reader to anticipate the effect their clicks, taps, or other gestures will have. For example, if a user may filter data by clicking on a heading or other visual element, make this behavior obvious so that user doesn’t have to guess what will happen.

Animated elements

Animation reveals information gradually rather than all at once. This creates a narration that works well if your visualization tells a particularly complex story.

Animation also is useful in transitioning from one view of the visualization to another, say, from a macro to a meso view. In some cases, animated transitions are useful in orienting the user. A zoom animation may help readers understand that they’ve focused in on a specific region of the visualization.

Animation may also be used to draw attention, give further explanation, indicate what a reader should do next, or demonstrate how to interact with the visualization.

6. Choose Graphical Treatment and Copywriting

Once you’ve defined your visual communication strategy, you’ll need to decide what sort of graphic treatment and textual tone will best convey your message, support your structure, and enforce your style. Generally, you’ll want to turn to specialists in information and graphic design to ensure that your graphic treatment and tone of voice coheres with the message you’re trying to convey.

Putting it Together

In summary, focus on defining the message of your visualization and create the story you’ll use to convey it. As the storyteller, how will you set up the story (for instance, what will users see first)? How will the story unfold (what different views will users be exposed to, and how will they interact)? Above all else, an interactive visualization is meant to be useful. It conveys a message and generates understanding without imposing the burden of interpretation on the reader. An interactive information visualization is a story in which readers play an active listening role. The easier it is to understand, the more impact it will have.

Happy designing!

More reading

Plamondon, L. (2015). Look at This: A Guide to Interactive Information Visualizations. User Experience Magazine, 15(1).
Retrieved from http://uxpamagazine.org/look-at-this/

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